The security precautions related to computer information and access address four major threats. The first major threat is theft of data, such as that of military secrets from government computers. The second threat is vandalism, including the destruction of data by a computer virus. The third major threat is fraud, such as employees at a bank channeling funds into their own accounts; and finally, invasion of privacy, such as the illegal accessing of protected personal financial or medical data from a large database. Cyberspace and its underlying infrastructure are vulnerable to a wide range of risk stemming from both physical and cyber threats and hazards. Sophisticated cyber actors and nation-states exploit vulnerabilities to steal information and money and are developing capabilities to disrupt, destroy, or threaten the delivery of essential services. A range of traditional crimes are now being perpetrated through cyberspace. This includes the production and distribution of child pornography and child exploitation conspiracies, banking and financial fraud, intellectual property violations, and other crimes, all of which have substantial human and economic consequences.
According to the Global Terrorism Index, the main driver of terrorism in recent years is due to religious extremism. The meaning of terrorism varies on many factors, but according to The Huffington Post, “a crime that is used as strategy or tactic in order to convey fear or terror” is the universally accepted definition. Unlike most crimes whose motives are often self-centered, the reason for terrorism is justified by excuses, such as, but not limited to political and religious reasons. Meanwhile, the term religious extremism is both subjective and self-explanatory: the fanatic belief in a political and/or religious cause, especially one who resorts to extreme actions such as, but not limited to martyrdom, the act of ending one’s own life to prove, stress, or defend a cause, which is an example of terrorism.
Throughout history and in many cultures, children have been extensively involved in military. The military use of children, also known as “Children in armed conflicts”, takes three distinct ways: children can take direct part in hostilities as child soldiers; they can be used in support roles such as porters, spies, messengers, lookouts; or they can be used for political advantage as human shields or in propaganda. Girls may be forced into sexual slavery. The rise of extremist armed groups such as the Islamic State and Boko Haram has brought renewed attention to the plight of children—both as victims of abuses, and as fighters and militants. All too often, the concern and assistance governments offer abuse victims does not extend to those children caught up on the wrong side of the law or front line.
In terms of producing electricity, there are several different methods to suit humanity’s needs. Environmentally friendly methods such as solar power plants, wind power plants, and hydroelectric dams are renewable, but often are expensive and rely on the environment. On the other hand, the usage of coal and oil may be inexpensive but lead to heavy taxing on the environment. Though expensive to construct, nuclear power plants are one of the most effective methods to produce energy, supplying 11.5% of global electricity needs. Nuclear power plants are environmentally friendly, as they depend on the heat produced from the nuclear fission of uranium fuel pellets in order to boil water, which consequently powers a turbine, rather than the burning of fuels in order to create smoke. However, a byproduct of fission is nuclear waste, which comes in the form of highly radioactive liquid waste. These highly radioactive byproducts are also known as High-Level Waste (HLW), whose half-lives, the time that it takes for their radioactivity to fall to half the value, can range from ten thousand to two million years. The amount of energy used to manage and dispose of such nuclear waste takes up 5% of the total energy generated from nuclear power plants.
“Financial crime” is an incredibly broad term that encompasses many types of crimes and is very difficult to define. Loosely speaking, a financial crime is a white collared crime, and, as defined by Interpol, it is any crime that has “a negative impact on the entire economic and social system through the considerable loss of money incurred” and “a major impact on the international banking and financial sectors – both official and alternative.”
The first real cryptocurrencies first began in late 2008, with the creation of Bitcoin by Satoshi Nakamoto. It was a side invention of his “Peer-to-peer Electronic Cash System”. He did this to circumvent the problems encountered by digital cash makers in the 90’s and the failures of the Trusted Third Party based system, a system in which a “trusted” centralized party oversees the transactions of currency. From there on, numerous other electronic currencies, such as Ethereum, were developed, and Bitcoin increased its value from worth next to nothing to around $7500 today.
Climate change has resulted in the significant growth of pathogens such as Perkinsusmarinus, a pathogen of the oyster Crassostreavirginica. There are different types of pathogens, but the most common types are bacteria, viruses, prions, protozoans, viroids, fungi, and human parasites. Research has revealed that there is a close tie between climate and pathogens, and have shown how the changes in the environment can affect the organisms which reside in it. The effects of climate change are tremendous, particularly in places such as jungles and rainforests where diverse creatures exist. For example, if the population of a plant species declines as a result of bacterial infections, organisms which depend on them as food sources will decline in population, followed by a decrease in carnivorous populations. Resurgence of pathogens is thus a threat to the world: not only do they affect the populations of wildlife, they also affect the whole population of humans.
All species are an integral part of their ecosystems by performing functions that are essential to the maintenance of the environment. Not only do they affect the balance of the ecosystem, they play an important role economically in terms of food production, industry, and tourism. As the ocean is a complex three-dimensional world, home to 230,000 documented marine species, marine biodiversity is a field that is still poorly understood due to the vastness in size; there is still unexplored ocean terrain. Advancements in technology have both positive and negative impacts. It helps in discovering and classifying new species; however, it also pollutes the oceans. The effects on marine life are apparent, but are often overlooked due to the insufficient knowledge about aquatic terrain.
The world already has experienced widespread damage caused by climate change disasters; sea levels and ocean temperatures are rising, and droughts are ruining agricultural production annually. For example, the increase in temperature has already decreased crop yields in southern Europe by reducing the number of available water resources as a result of extreme heat. Global warming – one of the largest aspects of climate change – is primarily caused by the emissions of greenhouse gases, such as carbon dioxide gas, which then become trapped in the earth’s lower atmospheric layer and accelerate the increase of the global temperature.
Multinational companies play an important role in sustainable development, especially in developing countries. It is achieved through not only their direct activities that result in work opportunities and in increase in living standards, but all along their supply and distribution chains. The extent and impact of their activities on the environment within these developing countries is less well known. Though many multinationals have carried out impact assessments, evaluating their social and commercial impacts, the importance of earning profit for multinationals companies is still an issue, and often clashes with the goal of sustainable development.
Multinational Corporations (MNCs) are enterprises that are managed from one (home) country but operate in a few countries. This topic will investigate on the measures to prevent these MNCs from exploiting developing markets in West Africa. This is because MNCs have immensely influenced developing countries, participating in their economic activity and growth. As MNCs influence developing countries, it is important to understand what effect MNCs have on these developing markets, how these MNCs benefit from developing markets, and why particular events happen.
Recent economic and social developments, combined with the impacts of globalization, have caused a distinct increase in poverty in Turkey. According to the United Nations Development Programme’s 2016 Human Development Report, Turkey is ranked at only 71 (out of 175 countries) in terms on the Human Development Index. Turkey, a candidate for membership in the European Union (EU), holds the highest figure of relative poverty among the members of the EU at 23%, according to a study released by the Eurostad.
Hunger has always been an ever-present problem, and the rate of people starving has increased as inequalities expanded across the globe. Despite the efforts being made in recent years, food security is yet to be prioritized as a prominent problem. Today, approximately 795 million people are undernourished, which means nearly 1 in 9 people experience chronic hunger. 98% of the 795 million come from developing countries, where 1 out of 6 children are underweight. This is due to the presence of inadequate food distribution policies and unresolved issues of poverty in these countries. Poverty is an important cause of hunger, especially in impoverished villages where the citizens either do not have enough money to afford the basic necessities or have to use more than half of their income to do so. In addition, the antiquated urban market facilities in these regions further hinder the process of food distribution, aggravating food shortages. Although economic growth can alleviate food insecurity, it is important to understand that the underlying causes of this issue must be eradicated first in order to effectively solve this issue.
More than 5.5 million people below the age of 25 are unemployed in the European Union currently. Many of them are not even in education or training to further their skills and find job opportunities. Youth unemployment is steadily increasing as a rising number of young adults (aged 15-24) are transitioning from education to the labor market, causing a fierce increase in competition. Despite the fact that nearly 100% of the population in the Eurozone go to school, once they hit the age of employment, a large percentage of them move into the labor market, rather than going to university, further exacerbating competition.
For several decades, persecutions has been an ongoing issue in Myanmar. However, in the last few years, the problem has grown to an issue of international size, concerning not only bordering countries such as Bangladesh, but also multiple nations from all over the world. Especially an unrecognised ethnical indigenous group called the Rohingya has been the central victim of brutal crimes, causing nearly the entire population of Rohingya to flee Myanmar. However, these are not the only minority group discriminated against, as Muslims and other religious groups have also been affected by this tragedy. As the Myanmar government does little against, and often actually encourages these persecution, this issue has not been raised to one of international priority, as especially Bangladesh is collapsing under the vast amounts of refugees entering their country every day.
Human rights are relevant to terrorism as concerns both its victims and its perpetrators. The suspected perpetrators of attacks also have rights, as members of the human family, in the course of their apprehension and prosecution. They have the right not to be subject to torture or other degrading treatment, the right to be presumed innocent until they are deemed guilty of the crime and the right to public trial.
The Philippine Drug War, since its introduction in 2016, has produced thousands of casualties. According to the government, 3,900 deaths occurred during legal operations led by authorities. Non-governmental organisations, such as Amnesty International, however, have reported more than 14,000 deaths as a result of investigations. In a statement, the Philippine government considered all those who have been killed as ones who fought against the authorities that were reinforcing Philippine laws, and as such, people who fight authorities and disrespect the law. This has raised international attention, especially the fact that all these casualties include infants and teenagers. Several governments and heads of states have raised their concerns towards the new Philippine policies and asked for a more diplomatic and peaceful approach. However, the Phillipine government, under President Rodrigo Duterte, has shown no tolerance or consideration towards international condemnation. On August 18th, 2016, the United Nations Human Rights committee recommended the Philippines to stop extrajudicial killings. They referred to Duterte’s actions as giving a “license to kill” to his citizen, through his public encouragement to kill anyone involved in drug issues. As a response, Duterte claimed he would withdraw from the UN and make his own alliances with China and African nations.
Human trafficking is one of the most widespread and fast-growing crimes in modern day society, which violates fundamental human rights. Likewise, human trafficking in Southeast Asia has long been a problem for the area and still is prevalent today. In addition, the most vulnerable victims of human trafficking are children. In Southeast Asia, child trafficking is widely regarded as interregional with laborers being collected from countries within the region and ultimately working within the region. Victims from Southeast Asia have also been found in many other countries around the globe. In Southeast Asia, child trafficking consists of forced sexual labor and forced labor which, in many countries in Southeast Asia, can lead to mixed forms of trafficking. For example, in Thailand and Malaysia, trafficking mainly takes the form of sexual exploitation, while in Indonesia forced labor is observed to be more prevalent, but both forms of sexual and forced labor can be found. It is estimated that 10,000 laborers are deceived or captured into forced labor annually in the region.
The Kurds, united by language and culture, inhibit in regions mainly in southeastern Turkey, and north-eastern Syria as well as part of Iraq. However, they do not have a state of their own. However, many Kurds expressed the need and want of establishing a state of their own. This is often referred to as Kurdistan. Yet, this idea faced many difficulties in the long run. Following the end of World War One, in the Treaty of Sevres in 1920, the western allies provisioned a Kurdistan state and gave hope to many Kurds who have always wanted their own homeland. However, in the Treaty of Lausanne, the modern border of Turkey was set and left no room for an individual, self-governed state for the Kurds. In the later years, despite many calls for an established Kurd state, all of them has been quashed. Mainly, the idea of an independent Kurdistan was opposed by nations such as Iraq, Iran, and Turkey.
Kashmir has been the center of conflict between India and Pakistan ever since the two nations earned their independence in 1947. Britain’s 1947 Indian Independence Act had removed British presence from the Indian subcontinent and partitioned it into a Hindu India and a Muslim Pakistan. The region Kashmir was free to join either nation. In late 1947, Kashmir chose to unite with India, which gave rise to a 70-year period of small conflicts and skirmishes between India and Pakistan. Three nations – India, Pakistan, and China – all claim to have control over the Kashmir region. India’s allegation to govern 45% of Kashmir, also known as the state of Jammu and Kashmir, is opposed by Pakistan, arguing that 35% of Jammu and Kashmir is governed by them. China declares to be in charge of the remaining 20%.
The Israeli Palestine conflict arose many centuries ago and has quite a complicated nature. It is mainly concerned with the idea of Zionism, which is a movement for re-establishing a Jewish nation. Specifically speaking, the Jews wanted a self-governed state within Palestine. The idea of Zionism rose many centuries ago, reaching its peak in the 20th during post Second World War era. This eventually forced the United Nation to intervene the issue, who recommended giving more than half of Palestine land to establishing a Jewish land despite the fact that the Jews only counts for an extremely low portion of the entire Palestinian population.
Located in the East China Sea, the Senkaku Islands are home to abundant oil and natural gas reserves. Not only do the islands provide rich fishing grounds, they also possess a strategically significant location in the Pacific Sea. Historically, the Senkaku Islands served as maritime navigational markers and were never liable to any nation’s control. In 1895, the Senkaku Islands were claimed by Japan and have been in their control ever since. However, titling these islands as the Diaoyu Islands, China have begun to reassert claims over the region. By citing historic rights to the area, China contends to have had control over the Diaoyu Islands since the 1400s. China’s sudden change of stance initiated the 50-year dispute over these islands between China and Japan; both nations strive to get hold of the economically and strategically valuable lands.
In 1945, the first nuclear weapon, an atomic bomb, was tested by the United States of America in a desert of New Mexico. Decades later, other member states have been pressured to develop their own nuclear arsenal. Since the era of the end of the Cold War, nuclear weapons have been present as an inconceivable threat to the security of the global community. The United Nations has shown tremendous efforts in regulating the possession of nuclear weapons for the past few decades; all efforts were directed to the objective of preventing a nuclear war. Nine member states today are believed to possess a nuclear arsenal; those member states are (listed in order from highest to lower in the possession of warheads) the United States of America, Russia, United Kingdom, France, China, India, Pakistan, Israel, and the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea (DPRK).
Small arms and light weapons (SALW) are known to be fairly cheap compared to other classifications of guns. Due to the fact that SALWs are cheap and powerful, and can be easily operated, many regions and groups have chosen SALWs to be their primary weapon choice. The illicit trade of SALWs is a big issue in Africa. The civilian possession of SALWs is also a pressing issue in the United States of America; however, the US constitution’s second amendment gives the citizens “the right to keep and bear arms”. Hence, most of the SALWs traded in the US are not through illicit trading. The issue of the illicit trade of SALWs primarily affects Africa because SALWs are believed to be even cheaper than the necessities such as water or a sack of grain in Africa. As a result, SALWs can easily be possessed in Africa. The derisory control over trading of SALWs has led to its widespread and misuse; over time, SALWs have played a major role in armed crime. SALWs have become a major cause of insecurity in several countries.
Due to their rich resources, the Polar Regions are attractive to countries. In order to maintain peace and security, the international community monitors the resources of Antarctica. The resources of Antarctica are protected under the Antarctic Treaty. Antarctica is one of the territories on earth that is not part of any recognized government. Antarctica is a continent that does not have permanent residents, as most of the people in Antarctica are part of a research mission or are tourists.
In 1959, the Arctic Treaty System was established in order to prevent any wars from happening due to territorial disputes between countries. After this treaty was signed, there have not been any new claims when it came to the land in the Antarctic continent. The treaty states that Antarctica can only be used for peaceful and scientific purposes, not military purposes.
With technology being on the rise in the recent years, chemical and biological weapons have been on the rise. These weapons are at risk of being acquired and used by non-state actors. Biological weapons are now available to non-state actors who can harm many civilians using these. Biological weapons are weapons that use harmful biological agents in order to cause death or disease to humans. In the future, taking into account the advancement of technology, bioterrorism poses a major threat especially in the hands of non-state actors. Biological weapons such as weaponized smallpox could possibly harm millions of civilians if they are exposed to these weapons.
The South China Sea territorial disputes are both island and maritime claims among several sovereign states within the region, including Brunei, the People’s Republic of China, the Republic of China, Malaysia, Indonesia, the Philippines, and Vietnam. All mentioned states have laid claim to a part of the South China Sea. The disputes include the reefs, banks, islands, and other features of the sea, including the Paracel Islands, Spratly Islands, and various boundaries in the Gulf of Tonkin. The South China Sea is also rich in natural resources, containing an estimated 11 billion barrels of oil, 190 trillion cubic feet of natural gas, as well as conducting one-third of international maritime trade, with US$5 trillion worth of global trade passing through the sea.
The situation in the Korean peninsula has been a hotspot for almost sixty years, since the partitioning of the two Koreas into North and South, with different polarised political systems. It is attracting lots of attention to the international community because of North Korea’s powerful nuclear weapon holds, which holds a serious threat to stability, security, and peace in North-East Asia and the world. The division between the North and South has been a major issue impacting the Asia Pacific region, as well as the global political stage.
The United Nations was founded shortly after the devastating Second World War (1939-1945) under an integral set of founding principles. Among the organisation’s primary objectives outlined in the UN Charter is the maintenance of international peace and security, as addressed in Article 24. Through methods promoting collective security and sovereign equality the UN pursues the peaceful settlement of disputes and prevention of war between its member states. To achieve these aims, the Security Council has authorised the use of force in a multitude of occasions in the past to establish collective security in attempts to avoid international conflict.
Catalonia has been part of Spain since 1700’s, after the local government had supported and fought with an Austrian family that laid claim on parts of Spain. After losing the War of Spanish Succession, Catalonia was absorbed into the Kingdom of Spain and lost its autonomy for a while. Catalonia slowly became the center for industrialization within Spain over the course of the 18th then 19th century, due to their status as one of the few regions that survived the Napoleonic occupation and the War in Spain. However, when the Second Spanish Republic was defeated in 1939, Catalonia and the rest of Spain suffered economic boycotts and other such sanctions. All of this led to Catalonia’s fall from grace as a beacon of economic prosperity to being one of the poorer regions within Spain. It took nearly four decades before the “Spanish Miracle”, which occurred in 1974, when the Spanish government rebuilt the Spanish tourist industry which then bolstered economic growth throughout Spain. In 1978, the Spanish government introduced a new Democratic Constitution which recognized Catalonia as an autonomous region with its own language.